21st October 2021

S. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.    The New QUAD Grouping between India, UAE, Israel and USA Prelims & Mains
2.    The appointment of speaker and deputy speaker Prelims & Mains
3.    About the Buddhist Site of Kushinagar Prelims & Mains
4.    Renaming of Mount Harriet after Manipur Prelims & Mains
5.    What is the Earthshot Prize Prelims Specific
6.    About the Nebra Sky Disc Prelims Specific


  1. The New QUAD Grouping between India, UAE, Israel and USA:


Topic à International relations:

  • Why in the News:
  • The first meeting of US, Indian, Israeli and UAE foreign ministers was recently held.
  • At the end of the summit, the four countries agreed to establish a new international economic forum to utilize the “unique power, knowledge and experience” provided by each country.
  • About the group:
  • The group is known as ‘New Quad’ or ‘Middle-Eastern Quad’.
  • Objectives and focus areas of the new Quad:
  • The group aims to serve as an “international economic forum” that will work to advance economic and political relations between the four countries.
  • Significance:
  • Experts believe the new group is crucial for greater international cooperation in keeping the Middle East region stable.
  • Comparison with Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD):
  • QSD, commonly referred to as the ‘Quad’ strategic dialogue is held between the United States, India, Japan and Australia.
  • The dialogue was initiated in 2007 in response to an increase in Chinese violence in the South China Sea and was accompanied by the largest joint military exercise of the modern day, the Malabar Exercise.
  • While Australia moved out of the discussion as its economic ties with China grow over a decade, the group reunited in 2017.
  • What will the new Quad Group focus on:
  • Some of the areas that these countries highlighted during their talks included improving trade relations, regional maritime cooperation, joint public health communications around the world, and joint infrastructure projects focusing on transportation and technology.
  • Benefits of the new Quad:
  • Apart from trade, there are opportunities for India, the UAE and Israel to work together in many areas – from semiconductor construction and space technology development.
  • With the new alliance, India can use this platform to take advantage of various opportunities such as Big data, AI, Quantum computing, exporting its products to their market etc.
  • The group will help focus on non-military issues such as trade, power, and the environment as well as the promotion of public goods.
  • The platform will help India to pursue multi-stakeholder relations in the region.
  • With major powers such as France, Russia, and China drawn into the region, the coalition will help India build its position in changing the geopolitics of the region.
  • The need and importance of the group:
  • Four countries with “different sets of skills, knowledge, and experience” can be used to create a new network of partnerships.
  • Countries have also noticed that there is a growing interest in each other. Especially in the field of energy, climate, trade, and regional security.
  • Therefore, the new Quad format will help these countries to develop these areas continuously.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • About the Quad Grouping.
  • When was it first proposed?
  • Important countries and islands in the Indian Ocean region.
  • An overview of the Indo-Pacific region.
  • Important seas and difficulties in the region.
  • Source –
  1. The appointment of speaker and deputy speaker:


Topic à Union Parliament:

  • Why in News:
  • Hardoi MLA Nitin Agrawal has been appointed Deputy Speaker of the Uttar Pradesh Assembly, with five months to go for the elections.
  • How are they selected:
  • Article 93 of Lok Sabha and Article 178 of the State Assemblies states that these Houses will elect their two members to be the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker.
  • In Lok Sabha and in the legislatures, the President / Governor sets the date for the election of the Speaker, and the Speaker decides the date of the election of the Deputy Speaker.
  • Is it mandatory under the Constitution to have a Deputy Speaker:
  • Constitutional experts point out that both Articles 93 and 178 use the words “shall” and “as soon as be” – indicating that the election of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker is not only compulsory, but urgent.
  • Their roles and responsibilities:
  • The Speaker is “the chief spokesperson of the House, representing its united voice and its only representative outside the house”.
  • The Speaker presides over the proceedings of the House and the joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament.
  • It is the Speaker’s decision that decides whether the Bill is a Finance Bill.
  • Usually the Speaker comes from the ruling party.
  • In the case of Lok Sabha Deputy Speaker, the position has been different over the years.
  • The Constitution has sought to ensure the independence of the Speaker by charging his salary on India’s consolidated fund and the same is not voted on by Parliament.
  • During a general debate on the bill, members of parliament should refer only to the Speaker while speaking.
  • Duration:
  • Once elected, the Deputy Speaker usually holds office until the end of the House.
  • Under Article 94 (Section 179 of the legislature), the Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall “resign if he or she ceases to be a member of the House of Representatives”.
  • They may resign (each other), or “may be removed from office by a resolution of the House of Representatives passed by a majority of all members of the House at the time”.
  • Powers of Deputy Speaker:
  • The Deputy Speaker has the same powers as the Speaker when presiding over the sitting of the House.
  • All references to the Speaker in the Rules are regarded as indications by the Deputy Speaker in charge.
  • States that have set a deadline to hold elections:
  • The Constitution does not set a time limit and does not specify the procedure for this election.
  • It is up to the legislature to decide how the election will be conducted.
  • For example, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh specify the length of time.
  • Haryana:
  • The election of the Speaker must take place as soon as possible after the election.
  • A Deputy Speaker will be elected within seven days.
  • The rules also stipulate that if a vacancy at these offices occurs after that, elections must be held within seven days of the next session of the legislature.
  • Uttar Pradesh:
  • There is a 15-day deadline for the election of the Speaker.
  • In the case of the Deputy Speaker, the date of the first election must be determined by the Speaker, with 30 days to fill the remaining vacancies.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Election of Speaker & Deputy Speaker.
  • Responsibilities & Power of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
  • Reasons for removal.
  • Related committees.
  • Source –
  1. About the Buddhist Site of Kushinagar:


Topic à Indian Culture:

  • Why in the News:
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently inaugurated the Kushinagar Airport.
  • Located in the eastern UP, it is the third largest airport in the state
  • The Sri Lankan Airlines flight carrying monks and nobles was the first to arrive at the airport.
  • Historical significance of Kushinagar:
  • Among one of the most important Buddhist pilgrimages, Kushinagar is where the Buddha discovered the Mahaparinirvana (great salvation) in c. 483 BC.
  • Modern-day Kushinagar is identified in Kushinara, the capital of the ancient Republic of Malla, which was one of the 16 mahajanapadas of the 6th-4th century BC.
  • The area continued to be part of the Mauryas, Shungas, Kushanas, Gupta, Harshavardhana and Palala kingdoms.
  • The first excavations in Kushinagar were made by Alexander Cunningham and ACL Carlleyle, who unearthed the main stupa and a six-foot-tall statue of the Reclining Buddha in 1876.
  • Kushinagar is among the very few places in India where the Buddha is shown in the reclining form.
  • Importance of the move:
  • While Buddhism originated in India and seven of the eight main Buddhist pilgrimages are in India, our country does not receive even one percent of the Buddhist pilgrims in the world.
  • It is hoped that world-class facilities will be able to attract Buddhist tourists to India, and increase revenue and performance of India’s economy
  • Therefore, this latest initiative will help India to develop important Buddhist pilgrimage destinations in the country.
  • About the Buddhist Circuit:
  • In 2016, the Department of Tourism announced the Buddhist Circuit as the first national tourism destination in the country, covering Nepal and Sri Lanka alongside those in India.
  • The Buddhist Circuit Service Map includes Bodh Gaya, Vaishali, and Rajgir in Bihar, Kushinagar, Sarnath, and Shravasti in the UP, and Lumbini in Nepal.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • About Kushinagar.
  • Buddhist Circuit.
  • Buddhist monasteries in India and the world.
  • Abode of Buddha.
  • Source –
  1.  Renaming of Mount Harriet after Manipur:


Topic à Modern Indian History:

  • Why in News:
  • The Center has revived Mount Harriet, a historic tourist destination in the Andaman and Nicobar islands, and has named it as ‘Mount Manipur’.
  • What is Manipur’s connection with Mount Harriet:
  • After the Anglo-Manipur War of 1891, several Manipuris who had been fighting the British in the war, including Maharaja Kulachandra Dhwaja Singh, were deported to British colony in the Andaman Islands.
  • With the construction of a new prison at Kalapani, Kulachandra and the inmates were being held at Mount Harriet, a mound in what is now known as the Therragunj tehsil of the South Andaman region.
  • Anglo-Manipur War of 1891- Causes:
  • The Anglo-Manipur War was fought between the Manipur and British empires for more than a month in 1891.
  • The war was sparked by an uprising at the palace of Manipur, marked by internal divisions prior to 1891.
  • The British government took advantage of the opportunity which rose because of this “internal strife” among officials of the royal family.
  • Importance of war:
  • Many say the war has been described as “a blow to Britain’s prestige”.
  • In addition to their victory, it has led to the death of five key police officers.
  • In India, it was considered part of the regular British anti-British protests, shortly after the 1857 Revolt.
  • The war led to Manipur formally becoming a dictatorship under the indirect rule of the British crown.
  • About Mount Harriet:
  • Mount Harriet is the third highest peak in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and served as the summer capital of the British Commission during the British rule.
  • It is believed that it was named after a British artist and photographer, Harriet Christina Tytler, who was the wife of Robert Christopher Tytler, a soldier serving in the British Indian Army.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • About Mount Harriet.
  • Anglo-Manipur War.
  • Source –
  1. What is the Earthshot Prize:

Prelims Specific Topic:

  • Known as the “Eco Oscars”, the Earthshot Prize was founded by Prince William and the Royal Foundation, a charity founded by the Duke & Duchess of Cambridge & historian David Attenborough.
  • It was established in 2020, 2021 was the first year that the awards were presented to the graduates for their contributions to achieving the five goals of the UN Sustainable Development Goals – restoration and environmental protection, air cleanliness, rehabilitation at sea, sanitation and climate action.
  • Vidyut Mohan of India, who developed a technology to recycle the agricultural waste, was named among the winners of this coveted prize.
  • What are the prizes about:
  • Encouraged by former US President John F Kennedy’s Moonshot – where the president had set a goal of reaching the Moon in less than a decade – the Earthshot award hopes to encourage and support the development of solutions to the world’s environmental problems.
  • Prizes and eligibility:
  • Five individuals or organizations that have developed solutions to the problems plaguing the planet will be awarded one million euros.
  • Each year five winners will be selected, one for each of the UN SDGs, with a total of 50 million euros released till 2030.

  1. About the Nebra Sky Disc:

Prelims Specific Topic:

  • The British Museum in London will exhibit an ancient artifact called the Nebra Sky Disc, which is considered to be the world’s oldest concrete exhibition.
  • About 3,600 years ago, this disc was traditionally buried with two swords, axes, two horizontal arm rings, and a single copper plate near Nebra in Germany.
  • The burial of these objects is thought to have taken place as a dedication to the gods.