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30th October 2021

S. No.Topic NamePrelims/Mains
1.    18% rise in farmers’ suicide in 2020: NCRB DataPrelims & Mains
2.    About MGNREGAPrelims & Mains
3.    About the National Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine DrivePrelims & Mains
4.    MoU between CAG and Auditor General of Maldives to strengthen audit of public financePrelims Specific
5.    Best Public Transport award won by SuratPrelims Specific


  1. 18% rise in farmers’ suicide in 2020: NCRB Data:


Topic – Agricultural Sector related issues:

  • Why in the News:
  • The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) has released a report on the suicide of farm-workers.
  • Detailed data:
  • The number of agricultural workers who died by suicide in 2020 was 18% higher than last year.
  • In total, 10,677 people working in the farm sector died by suicide in 2020.
  • However, the suicides of farm-tenants have fallen sharply during the epidemic year.
  • Landless agricultural workers, who have not benefited from income-generating programs such as PM Kisan, are likely to face high levels of stress during the epidemic.
  • The worst affected state continues to be Maharashtra, with 4,006 people committing suicide in the farm sector, including a 15% increase in farm worker suicides.
  • Other states with a poor record include Karnataka (2016), Andhra Pradesh (889) and Madhya Pradesh (735).
  • Karnataka has seen a negative 43% increase in the number of farm workers committing suicide by 2020.
  • Problems faced by the agricultural sector:
  • The Indian agricultural sector faces some of the key challenges such as low crop yields, heavy rainfall dependence, low export market share, farm equipment deficits, debt consolidation and suicide among farmers.
  • All of this puts a strain on the already struggling industry, slowing its decline
  • Causes of Farmer Suicide:
  • There is no consensus as to what the underlying causes may be but research shows that suicide victims are motivated by more than one causes, yet the main reason is à not being able to repay the loan.
  • The main causes are reported financial loss / debt, family problems, crop failure, illness and alcohol / drug abuse.
  • Hidden unemployment on farms remains high.
  • The division of land has left too many farmers with too few farms to work on.
  • Lower access to credit, irrigation and technology cripples their ability to make a living comfortably.
  • One tenth of our farmers have no land.
  • They use leased land, but poor land rental practices make it difficult for them to enhance agricultural productivity, thereby have lower incomes.
  • Upcoming challenges:
  • Irrigation reaches less than half of India’s agricultural land, a picture that has not changed much in the last decade, and more than 60% of our farmers are at risk of rainfall disruption.
  • Yields for rain-fed agriculture are usually less than half of those irrigated farms.
  • Research on high yielding crops has improved after the first outbreak during the Green Revolution and farmers should use patented seeds to get the most out of their small lands.
  • Efforts such as eNAM help to integrate farmers’ products directly with the market, however, cutting off the role of middlemen is still lagging behind.
  1. About MGNREGA:


Topic – Government Schemes:

  • Why in News:
  • According to its financial statements, the financial corpus Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) has been depleted in the current financial year.
  • Impacts:
  • This means that payments under MGNREGA will be delayed, unless governments use additional money to support the MGNREGA coffers.
  • About MGNREGA:
  • The program was launched in 2005 as a social initiative that guarantees the “right to work”.
  • A key point of this social and labour law is that local/state government will have to formally provide at least 100 days of wages in rural India to improve their quality of life.
  • Key objectives:
  • Generation of paid rural employment of not less than 100 days for each volunteer worker with unskilled work.
  • Continuing to ensure community inclusion by strengthening the livelihood of the rural poor.
  • Construction of durable infrastructure in rural areas such as springs, lakes, roads and canals.
  • Reduce urban migration from rural areas.
  • Building rural infrastructure through underutilized domestic workers.
  • The following are eligible ways to receive benefits under the MGNREGA program:
  • You must be a citizen of India to claim the benefits of MGNREGA.
  • A job applicant has completed 18 years of age.
  • The applicant must be part of a local family of that village (i.e. the application must be made through a local Gram Panchayat).
  • Applicants must volunteer for unskilled jobs.
  • Program implementation:
  • Within 15 days of submitting the application or from the date on which the job is sought, salary work will be provided to the applicant.
  • There is a right to receive an unemployment benefit grant, in the event that the work is not granted within 15 days of submission of the application or from the date of application.
  • The Social Audit of MGNREGA works is mandatory to enhance their accountability and transparency.
  • Prelims Link:
  • Under MGNREGA, what are the roles of Gram Sabha, Gram Panchayat, States, State Food Commission, Center?
  • What is payroll?
  • Who does social research?
  • Source – https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/no-money-left-in-mgnrega-coffers-21-states-in-the-red/article37241358.ece
  1. About the National Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Drive:


Topic – Biotechnology and Health related issues:

  • Why in the News:
  • The government has introduced the national expansion of the Pneumococcal 13-valent Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) under the Global Immunization Program (UIP) as part of the ‘Azadi by Amrit Mahotsav’.
  • It was the first time in the country that PCV was available for use worldwide.
  • PCV13 protects against 13 types of bacteria that cause pneumococcal disease.
  • What is Pneumonia:
  • Pneumococcus pneumonia is the most common cause of severe pneumonia in children.
  • Pneumonia was the leading cause of death among children under five, worldwide and in India.
  • About 16% of child deaths occur due to pneumonia in India.
  • What is Pneumococcal disease:
  • Pneumococcal disease refers to any disease caused by pneumococcal bacteria.
  • These germs can cause many types of diseases, including pneumonia, which is a lung infection.
  • Pneumococcal bacteria are one of the most common causes of pneumonia.
  • Global Immunization Program:
  • It was established in 1985 to prevent deaths and illnesses of children and pregnant women against 12 vaccine-preventable diseases.
  • Under the UIP, free cost immunizations are offered against twelve preventable diseases namely Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Hepatitis B, Pneumonia and Meningitis due to Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib ), Measles, Rubella, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Rotavirus diarrhoea.
  • This program is one of the largest health programs in the world.
  • However, despite many years of operation, UIP has managed to vaccinate only 65% ​​of children under one year of age.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Pneumonia – types, causes and symptoms.
  • Antigens vs Immune System.
  • How does the goal work?
  • Types of vaccines.
  • About DGCI.
  • The process to be followed to approve the policy in India.
  • Source – https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/nationwide-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-drive-launched/article37232412.ece
  1. MoU between CAG and Auditor General of Maldives to strengthen audit of public finance:


Topic – International Relations:

  • Why in the News:
  • The Comptroller and Auditor-General of India and the Auditor-General of the Maldives have signed a memorandum of understanding to strengthen the public accounting process.
  • The MoU also aims to exchange information in the field of public sector audit between the two countries.
  • About the CAG:
  • The Constitution of India provides for an independent office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) in chapter V under Part V.
  • The CAG is enshrined in the Constitution of India under Article 148 – 151.
  • He is the Head of the Accounts and Audit Department.
  • He is the custodian of the public fund and manages the entire national financial system at both levels – the central as well as the state level.
  • His job is to uphold the Constitution of India and the laws of Parliament in the field of financial management.
  • Appointment and Duration of CAG:
  • The CAG is appointed by the President of India with a warranty under his hand and seal.
  • He holds office for a term of six years or up to 65 years, whichever is earlier.
  • Duties and Functions of CAG:
  • The CAG audits accounts related to all expenses from the Consolidated Fund of India, the Consolidated Fund for each state and the UT as well.
  • The CAG audits all expenditures from the Indian Contingency Fund and the Indian Public Account and the Emergency Fund and each State Public Account.
  • The CAG audits all trade, production, profit and loss accounts, balance sheets and other sub-accounts held by any Central Government departments and regional governments.
  • The CAG audits the receipts and expenses of all funded bodies and authorities from Central or State level; state-owned enterprises; other companies and entities, if required.
  • He serves as a guide, friend and philosopher of the Parliamentary Public Accounts Committee.
  • Reports:
  • He submits his audit reports relating to the accounts of the Centre and the State Governments to the President and the Governor, who shall present them before both the houses of Parliament and the state legislature respectively.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Differences between consolidated and emergency finances in India.
  • About the Public Accounts Committee.
  • Reports submitted by the CAG to the President.
  • Who appointed the CAG?
  • CAG appointment and removal.
  • Source – https://cag.gov.in/uploads/PressRelease/PR-Press-Release-on-MoU-in-Maldives-06179319e5517c4-24384371.pdf
  1. Best Public Transport award won by Surat:

Prelims Specific Topic:

  • Surat won the city award for best public transport system.
  • The award was presented by the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
  • Other winners:
  • Kochi was judged by a city with a stable transportation system.
  • Delhi received the city award for the best non-motorized transportation program for the Chandni Chowk redevelopment project.
  • Delhi also won the award for best Metro passenger services and satisfaction.
  • Also, Nagpur’s multi-modal integration with Metro rail has been found to be the best in the country.






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