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09th October 2021

S. No. Topic Name Prelims/Mains
1.     About Palk Bay Scheme Prelims & Mains
2.     About the OECD/G 20 Inclusive Framework Tax Deal Prelims & Mains
3.     Growing Digital Divide in India Prelims & Mains
4.     About Stubble Burning Prelims & Mains
5.     About the Rohingya Crisis Prelims Specific
6.     About the Tawang Issue Prelims Specific


  1. About the Palk Bay Scheme:


Topic : Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.

  • Why in the News:
  • The Union Government is considering increasing the cost of deep sea fishing units under the Talk Bay program to make it more attractive to fishers.
  • About the Talk Bay program:
  • Launched in July 2017 under the Blue Revolution program.
  • The program is funded by the Union and the State Government through the participation of beneficiaries.
  • It was expected that 2,000 vessels would be allocated over three years to State fishermen and encourage them to stop fishing on land.
  • Scheme implementation:
  • It was planned to build 500 boats in the first year (2017-18). Of the cost per unit unit (₹ 80 lakh), 50% will be borne by the Agency, 20% by the State Government and 10% by the beneficiary, and the remaining 20% ​​will be met with institutional funding.
  • What are the obligations to the beneficiaries under the Deep Sea fishery:
  • The Deep Sea fishery will deplete as many fishing vessels as possible in Walk Bay.
  • Potential beneficiaries of a deep-seated fishing project must have a registered vessel, suitable for navigation greater than 12 meters in length to be cleared or disposed of outside Palk Bay.
  • The abandoned boat had to be physically and verified.
  • Equally important, new replacement tuna boats cannot fish or operate in Walk Bay.
  • Beneficiaries are not allowed to sell their boats within five years of receiving them
  • Program Significance:
  • This program was considered a solution to the Walk Bay fishermen’s war.
  • The institute feels that deep-sea fishing is the “only solution” to promote ecologically sustainable fishing and reduce “fishing pressure” near the International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL) and cross-border fishing events.
  • What is the issue with Bottom trawling:
  • Lower fishing, an environmental degradation practice, including the net drag on the seabed, has resulted in significant depletion of water resources.
  • Lower trawling catches young fish, thus depleting marine resources and affecting marine conservation efforts. The practice was started by Tamil Nadu fishermen in Walk Bay and was actively followed in the civil war in Sri Lanka.
  • What is the deep sea fishing system:
  • It is the solution to the bottom line issue lies in the transition from fishing to deep sea fishing.
  • The activity of catching deep-sea / ocean fish is called deep-sea fishing.
  • Boats are designed in such a way that fishermen can reach deep into the oceans and fish species.
  • It is made worldwide, especially in coastal areas without environmental damage.
  • The water depth should be at least 30 meters to be considered as a deep sea fishing area.
  1. About the OECD/G 20 Inclusive Framework Tax Deal


Topic : Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

  • Why in News::
  • A two-pillar solution under the framework outlined above will be presented at the G20 Finance Ministers ‘meeting in Washington DC on October 13, followed by the G20 Leaders’ Summit in Rome later this month.
  • Countries aim to sign an international agreement by 2022, with effective implementation by 2023.
  • Background:
  • India has already joined the G20 – OECD framework which includes changing international tax laws and ensuring that international businesses pay their fair share of where they operate.
  • 130 countries and authorities, representing more than 90% of global GDP, have signed an agreement.
  • Two pillars of the framework:
  • Partnerships with international and digital companies.
  • This pillar ensures that large multinational corporations, including digital companies, pay taxes where they work and make a profit.
  • Dealing with the lower tax authorities to deal with the transfer of cross-border profits and the purchase of an agreement.
  • The pillar seeks to reduce international competition through the world’s lowest corporate tax rate, currently proposed at 15%.
  • Expected results:
  • If used, countries such as the Netherlands and Luxembourg that offer lower taxes, and so-called taxpayers such as the Bahamas or the British Virgin Islands, may lose their share.
  • Impact / impact on India:
  • India will have to reverse the equity tax imposed on companies such as Google, Amazon and Facebook when the global tax regime is implemented.
  • What is the rating tax:
  • In 2016, India imposed a 6% tax rate on online advertising services provided by non-residents. This applies to Google and other external online advertising service providers.
  • Government has expanded its scope since April 1, 2020, by imposing a 2% equity tax on digital transactions by foreign organizations operating in India or having access to local markets.
  • What is BEPS:
  1. Growing Digital Divide in India:


Topic : Protection of vulnerable sections of the society:

  • Why in the News:
  • The Supreme Court has signalled the effects of digital segregation.
  • It has been recognized that the digital divide caused by online classes will violate the basic right of all children to education.
  • How have online classes affected children:
  • Young children whose parents are too poor to buy laptops, tablets or the “optimum” Internet package for home classrooms during the epidemic have dropped out of school and are at risk of being dragged into child labor or worse, child trafficking.
  • Even the right to education depends on who can afford the “gadgets” of online classes and who can.
  • What is the problem:
  • The court heard an application by private school authorities against the order of the Delhi High Court in September 2020, ordering them to provide their students with 25% EWS / DG online grants free of charge.
  • The High Court has ruled that schools can receive a refund from the government.
  • The Delhi government has said it does not have the resources to rehabilitate schools with online gadgets.
  • Although the Supreme Court upheld the Supreme Court order in February 2021, the court ruled that both Institutions and Provinces such as Delhi are incapable of inciting their obligations to children.
  • What is next:
  • The Court has asked the Delhi government to come up with a plan to implement the ‘rule of thumb’ proposed in the High Court decision. The court said the institution should participate in the consultation.
  • What is a Divide Divide:
  • It means the difference between people who have access to and the resources to use new information and communication tools, such as the Internet, and people who do not have the resources and access to technology.
  • It also means the difference between those who have the skills, knowledge and skills to use technology and those who do not.
  • Where is it:
  • Digital diversity can exist between those living in rural areas and those living in cities, between gender, between educated and uneducated people, between economic sectors, and globally between the most developed countries.
  • Status in India:
  • Although India has 220 million smartphone users and is the second largest market for smartphones in the world, global penetration is still 30 percent of the population.
  • There is great diversity in rural and urban areas and in India.
  • Statistically, more than 75 percent of the country’s broadband connections are in the top 30 cities.
  • Similarly, many states like the northeastern states, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Assam are lagging behind other provinces in the use and development of ICT.
  • Globally 12% of men use the Internet more than women in 2017, while in India only 29% of total Internet users are women.
  • Another important reason for the digital divide in India is the sharing of information.
  • The division of information is directly related to the segregation of digital.
  • The Impact of this Digital Division:
  • Low gender representation: Due to high gender diversity, thousands of Indian girls in these remote areas have been denied access to Information and Communications Technology (ICTs), which is a major cause of women’s representation in the workplace.
  • Denial of knowledge / knowledge: This lack of equal access to online resources and information deprives people of higher / higher education and skills training that can help them contribute to the economy and become world-class leaders.
  • Non-delivery of social services: As more schemes have started using ICT in their delivery, simultaneously due to digital segregation will create a major problem.
  • Sourceàhttps://www.thehindu.com/news/national/supreme-court-flags-consequences-of-growing-digital-divide/article36902976.ece
  1. About the Rohingya Crisis:


Topic : Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests:

  • Why in the News:
  • Bangladesh plans to send more than 80,000 Rohingya refugees to a remote island – Basan Char- eBay of Bengal after concluding a United Nations aid agreement.
  • About 19,000 Muslim refugees from Myanmar have already moved from the mainland camps to the island of Bashan Char, despite concerns raised by aid groups.
  • Background:
  • Bhasan Char is a specially developed island to accommodate 1,00,000 of the 1 million Rohingya refugees in neighbouring Myanmar.
  • While human rights groups have condemned the move and some have been forced to do something against their will, the government has insisted that refugees migrating to the island do so voluntarily.
  • Who are the Rohingyas:
  • They are a racial group, especially Muslims.
  • They were not given full citizenship by Myanmar.
  • They are classified as “foreign nationals or joint citizens”.
  • Geographically they are closer to the Indo-Aryan peoples of India and Bangladesh than the Sino-Tibetan people of the country.
  • He has been described by UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres as “one of the most discriminating people in the world”.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Who are the Rohingyas
  • Rakhine State.
  • About the International Court of Justice.
  • ICJ vs International Criminal Court.
  • Source àhttps://www.thehindu.com/news/international/bangladesh-plans-to-move-81000-rohingya-to-island-after-un-deal-officials/article36896707.ece
  1. About the Tawang Issue:

Prelims Specific Topic:

  • Why in the News:
  • India-China surveillance is targeted at Tawang.
  • Chinese soldiers were arrested, and later released.
  • Face-to-face encounters are due to different viewing areas due to a set limit, and as both parties perform surveillance tasks to the point of their perception.
  • About Tawang:
  • Historically,Tawang was part of Tibet.
  • The 1914 Simla Accord described the McMahon Line as the new border between British India and Tibet.
  • With this agreement Tibet gave some of its territory, including Tawang, to the British. But it was not seen by China.
  • In 1950, Tibet lost its independence and was incorporated into the newly formed People’s Republic of China.
  • Later, in 1959, when the current Dalai Lama fled Tibet, he came to India by Tawang.
  • During the Sino-Indian war of 1962, Tawang fell temporarily under Chinese rule, but China voluntarily withdrew its troops at the end of the war.
  • Tawang was once again under Indian rule, but China has not abandoned its claims to much of Arunachal Pradesh, including Tawang.



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