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TOPIC : G S 3 Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.

Positive climate

What is the news?

  • India’s front­line position as third highest emitter of greenhouse gases has sharpened focus on its future policy course to mitigate carbon emissions under the Paris Agreement.
  • It has an claim to a big part of the remaining global carbon budget, along with other smaller nations with low historical emissions

Analysis of Climate change v/s Largest Emitter

  • It room for negotiate  has shrunk in a world facing record temperatures and calamitous weather events.
  • There is escalating pressure for India to commit itself to a date when it can achieve net zero removing as much GHGs as it emits on the lines of the goal set by the U.S. and the European Union for mid­century, and 2060 by China.
  • Declaring a net zero plan under the Paris pact is a disquieting prospect since it would impose expensive choices, particularly in energy production.
  • S. Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John Kerry, with the promise of financing and technology to make renewable energy the core of future development.
  • Specific areas of cooperation to bring down emissions  in the expansion of transport, buildings and industry  and facilitating funding for 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030 can advance the India­U.S. Climate and Clean Energy Agenda 2030 Partnership.
  • More clarity on the bilateral road map towards emissions reduction may come at the COP26 conference in November.
  • India, meanwhile, needs to get all States to mitigate emissions and help them adapt to climate linked extreme weather and atmospheric pollution caused by fossil fuels.

Climate Targets

  • At the end of 2020, a year marked by COVID­19 and many destructive storms, declared by Union Environment Ministry

Way Forward

  • The country had achieved 21% of its 33%­35% target to cut emissions intensity of GDP by 2030, and, similarly, was generating 37.9% of the 40% of power from renewables.
  • Encouraging, the immediate challenge lies in coming up with an adaptation framework to help those at highest risk the millions living in the path of annual cyclones, including residents of populous coastal cities.
  • Raising the ability of city administrations to handle tens of millions of litres of water regularly dumped in just a few days requires planning, funding and political commitment.
  • Making low­cost insurance available for houses against climate related losses will raise resilience, and lead to audits, encouraging governments to reduce risks.
  • The Paris Agreement can easily fund much­needed urban retrofitting and boost employment.
  • There is also a health imperative. Heat stress has a severe impact, causing higher mortality among the vulnerable elderly.
  • These are growing problems, but they also represent an opportunity to steer post­COVID­19 policies towards, green development for a low emissions future, policies must put nature at the centre.

Mains Question

How engagement with the U.S. should help India expand mitigation, adaptation action ?

Sources : https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/positive-climate-the-hindu-editorial-on-india-engaging-the-us/article36462477.ece

PRELIMS PUNCHERS

  1. 1. Similipal National Park

It is a national park and a tiger reserve in the Mayurbhanj district in the Indian state of Odisha . It is part of the Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve, which includes three protected areas Similipal Tiger Reserve, Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary and Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary. Simlipal National Park derives its name from the abundance of red silk cotton trees growing in the area. The park is home to Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, gaur, and chausingha. This protected area is part of the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 2009

It lies in the Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests ecoregion, with tropical moist broadleaf forest and tropical moist deciduous forests with dry deciduous hill forest and high level Sal forests .The grasslands and the savannas provide grazing grounds for the herbivores and hiding place to the carnivores.

Sources : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/simlipal-park-fire-under-control-rainfall-helps/article34051180.ece

  1. Dengue fever

It  is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection. These may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash. Recovery generally takes two to seven days. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into a more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in

bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Dengue is spread by several species of female mosquitoes of the Aedes genus, principally Aedes aegypti. The virus has five serotypes infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type, but only short-term immunity to the others. Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe complications. A number of tests are available to confirm the diagnosis including detecting antibodies to the virus or its RNA.

Sources : https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/mumbai-dengue-cloud-over-city-too-e-g-wards-report-most-cases/articleshow/86214087.cms

  1. Operation Meghdoot

It was the codename for the Indian Armed Forces’ operation to seize control of the Siachen Glacier in Kashmir, precipitating the Siachen conflict. Executed in the morning of 13 April 1984 in the highest battlefield in the world, Meghdoot was the first military offensive of its kind. The operation preempted Pakistan’s impending Operation Ababeel which was intended to achieve the same objective as Meghdoot and was a success, resulting in Indian forces gaining control of the Siachen Glacier in its entirety.

Currently, the Indian Army remains the first and only army in the world to have taken tanks and other heavy ordnance up to such an altitude. Up to ten infantry battalions each of the Indian Army and Pakistan Army are actively deployed at high altitudes throughout the region of the glacier.

Sources : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/braving-all-odds-for-a-trek-to-siachen/article36439228.ece

  1. The Khasi Hills

It is a low mountain formation on the Shillong Plateau in Meghalaya state of India. The Khasi Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi-Jaintia range and connects with the Purvanchal Range and larger Patkai Range further east. Khasi Hills, and the whole Garo-Khasi-Jaintia range, are in the Meghalaya subtropical forests ecoregion. Khasi Hills, and the entire Meghalaya state was administratively part of Assam before 1970. In older sources in particular, the alternative transcription Khasia Hills is seen.

The region is inhabited mainly by tribal Khasi dwellers, which are traditionally in various chieftainships, states known as the Khasi Hill States. One of its capitals, Sohra, is considered one of the wettest places in the world. The region came under the Khasi Hills district, which was divided into West Khasi Hills and East Khasi Hills districts . The highest peak is Lum Shyllong . It is situated a few kilometers south of Shillong town

Sources : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/indigenous-touch-to-national-anthem-in-meghalaya/article36447689.ece

 

PRELIMS QUESTIONS

Qn 1.Which among the following diseases is/are caused by the Aedes aegypti mosquito?

  1. Malaria
  2. Chikungunya

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : B

It  is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection. These may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash. Recovery generally takes two to seven days. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into a more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in

bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Dengue is spread by several species of female mosquitoes of the Aedes genus, principally Aedes aegypti. The virus has five serotypes infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type, but only short-term immunity to the others. Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe complications. A number of tests are available to confirm the diagnosis including detecting antibodies to the virus or its RNA.

Qn 2.Consider the following statements:

1.Similipal Biosphere Reserve is part of UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserve.

  1. Abundance of red silk cotton trees an be spotted in the Similipal Biosphere Reserve

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer : C

It is a national park and a tiger reserve in the Mayurbhanj district in the Indian state of Odisha . It is part of the Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve, which includes three protected areas Similipal Tiger Reserve, Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary and Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary. Simlipal National Park derives its name from the abundance of red silk cotton trees growing in the area. The park is home to Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, gaur, and chausingha. This protected area is part of the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 2009

It lies in the Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests ecoregion, with tropical moist broadleaf forest and tropical moist deciduous forests with dry deciduous hill forest and high level Sal forests .The grasslands and the savannas provide grazing grounds for the herbivores and hiding place to the carnivores.

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