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S. No.Topic NamePrelims/Mains
1.    Impact of Climate Change on El-Nino-Southern OscillationPrelims & Mains
2.    Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019Prelims & Mains
3.    About NCLT and ITATPrelims & Mains
4.    Nastional Intelligence Grid or NATGRIDPrelims & Mains
5.    Train Monetization PlanPrelims & Mains
6.    LCA-Mk 2Prelims Specific


  1. Impact of Climate Change on El-Nino-Southern Oscillation: 


Topic à Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc.

Why in News:

  • There is a growing body of research suggesting that climate change can cause extreme and more frequent El Niño and La Niña events.
  • A study was conducted recently on this using one of South Korea’s fastest supercomputers,
  • Findings of the latest study:
  • Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide can cause a “weakening of future simulated ENSOsea surface temperature variability.”
  • Future El Niño events will lose heat to the atmosphere more quickly due to the evaporation of water vapour.
  • In the future there will be a reduced temperature difference between the eastern and western tropical Pacific, inhibiting the development of temperature extremes during the ENSO cycle.
  • Also, there can be a weakening of tropical instability waves in the projected future, which can cause a disruption of the La Niña event.
  • What are the Niño and La Niña:
  • They are two natural climate phenomena occurring across the tropical Pacific Ocean and influence the weather conditions all over the world.
  • While the El Niño period is characterised by warming or increased sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, a La Niña event causes the water in the eastern Pacific Ocean to be colder than usual
  • Together, they are called ENSO or El Niño-Southern Oscillation.
  • What causes El Nino:
  • El Nino sets in when there is an anomaly in the pattern.
  • The westward-blowing trade winds weaken along the Equator and due to changes in air pressure, the surface water moves eastwards to the coast of northern South America.
  • The central and eastern Pacific regions warm up for over six months and result in an El Nino condition.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • What is El Nino?
  • What is La Nina?
  • What is ENSO?
  • When do these events occur?
  • Impact of ENSO on Asia, Africa and Australia.
  • Source – The Indian Express
  1. Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019:


Topic à Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

  • Why in News:
  • The Tamil Nadu Assembly has adopted a resolution urging the Centre to repeal the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019.
  • With this, Tamil Nadu has joined states like Kerala and West Bengal in passing resolutions against CAA.
  • Reason:The state said the law is not in tune with the secular principles laid down in our Constitution and also not conducive to the communal harmony that prevails in India.
  • Background:
  • The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 (CAA)was notified on December 12, 2019 and came into force from January 10, 2020
  • It seeks to amend the Citizenship Act, 1955
  • The Citizenship Act,1955 provides various ways in which citizenship may be acquired.
  • It provides for citizenship by birth, descent, registration, naturalisation and by incorporation of the territory into India.
  • About CAA:
  • The objective of the CAA is to grant Indian citizenship to persecuted minorities — Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Buddhist, Parsi and Christian — from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan.
  • Those from these communities who had come to India till December 31, 2014, facing religious persecution in their respective countries, will not be treated as illegal immigrants but given Indian citizenship.
  • The Act provides that the central government may cancel the registration of OCIs on certain grounds.
  • Exceptions:
  • The Act does not apply to tribal areas of Tripura, Mizoram, Assam and Meghalaya because of being included in the 6th Schedule of the Constitution.
  • Also areas that fall under the Inner Limit notified under the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation, 1873, will also be outside the Act’s purview.
  • Issues surrounding the law:
  • It violates the basic tenets of the Constitution. Illegal immigrants are distinguished on the basis of religion.
  • It is perceived to be a demographic threat to indigenous communities.
  • It makes illegal migrants eligible for citizenship on the basis of religion.
  • This may violate Article 14 of the Constitution which guarantees the right to equality.
  • It attempts to naturalise the citizenship of illegal immigrants in the region.
  • It allows cancellation of OCI registration for violation of any law. This is a wide ground that may cover a range of violations, including minor offences.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • About CAA.
  • Religions covered.
  • Countries Covered.
  • Source – The Hindu
  1. About NCLT and ITAT:


Topic à Important Statutory Bodies:

  • Why in News:
  • The government has appointed 31 people as judicial, technical and accountant members at the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) and the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT)
  • These developments assume significance as they come amid the Supreme Court flagging concerns about vacancies in various tribunals.
  • Background:
  • There are around 250 posts lying vacant at various key tribunals and appellate tribunals such as the NCLT, the DRT, the TDSAT and the SAT.
  • Supreme Court had recently flagged concerns, saying the Centre was “emasculating” tribunals by not appointing officials to the quasi-judicial bodies that are facing a staff crunch.
  • About NCLT:
  • It is a quasi-judicial bodyin India that adjudicates issues relating to companies in India.
  • Established on 1st June, 2016 (Companies Act, 2013).
  • Formed based on the recommendations of the Justice Eradi Committee.
  • It deals with matters mainly related to companies law and the insolvency law.
  • Term of members:Appointments will be for five years from the date of assumption of charge or till attaining the age of 65 or until further orders.
  • About ITAT:
  • It deals with income tax matters.
  • It is statutory body in the field of direct taxes and its orders are accepted as final, on findings of fact.
  • ITAT was the first Tribunal to be created on 25th January, 1941 and is also known as ‘Mother Tribunal’
  • With a view to ensuring highest degree of independence of the ITAT, it functions under the Department of Legal Affairs in the Ministry of Law and Justice and is kept away from any kind of control by the Ministry of Finance.
  • The orders passed by the ITAT can be subjected to appellate challenge, on substantial questions of law, before the respective High Court.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • What are tribunals?
  • Constitutional provisions in this regard.
  • Composition and functions.
  • Overview of the latest ordinance.
  • Source – The Hindu
  1. National Intelligence Grid or NATGRID:


Topic à Infrastructure related issues 

  • Why in News:
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi is soon expected to launch the National Intelligence Grid or NATGRID that aims to provide a “cutting-edge technology to enhance India’s counter-terror capabilities”.
  • What is NATGRID:
  • Envisaged as a robust mechanism to track suspects, the NATGRID can help in preventing terrorist attacks with real-time data and access to classified information like immigration, banking, individual taxpayers, air and train travels.
  • In 2010, the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) had given approval to the Rs 3,400-crore NATGRID project.
  • Who can access the data:
  • It will be a medium for at least 10 Central agencies such as the Intelligence Bureau (IB) and the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) to access data on a secured platform.
  • The data will be procured by NATGRID from 21 providing organisations such as the telecom, tax records, bank, immigration etc.
  • Criticisms:
  • NATGRID is facing opposition on charges of possible violations of privacy and leakage of confidential personal information.
  • Its efficacy in preventing terror has also been questioned given that no state agency or police force has access to its database thus reducing chances of immediate, effective action.
  • According to few experts, digital databases such as NATGRID can be misused. Over the last two decades, the very digital tools that terrorists use have also become great weapons to fight the ideologies of violence.
  • Intelligence agencies have also opposed amid fears that it would impinge on their territory and possibly result in leaks on the leads they were working on to other agencies.
  • But, Why do we need NATGRID:
  • The danger from not having a sophisticated tool like the NATGRID is that it forces the police to rely on harsh and coercive means to extract information in a crude and degrading fashion.
  • After every terrorist incident, it goes about rounding up suspects—many of who are innocent. If, instead, a pattern search and recognition system were in place, these violations of human rights would be much fewer.
  • Natgrid would also help the Intelligence Bureau keep a tab on persons with suspicious backgrounds.
  • The police would have access to all his data and any movement by this person would also be tracked with the help of this data base.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • What is CCTNS?
  • NATGRID- aims and objectives.
  • What is NCRB?
  • Agencies covered under NATGRID.
  • Source – The Hindu
  1. Train Monetization Plan


Topic à Indian Economy & Infrastructure

Why in News

  • Concerns expressed over Centre’s proposal to monetize the Darjeeling Himalayan Railways (DHR).
  • More on this news:
  • There are four fully functional and operational railways networks in mountains and hilly terrains in India — the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (DHR) located in the foothills of the Himalayas in West Bengal; the Nilgiris Mountain Railways located in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu; the Kalka Shimla Railway located in the Himalayan foothills of Himachal Pradesh; and the Matheran Railway located in Maharashtra.
  • Darjeeling Hill railway:
  • DHR was built in the British era between 1879 and 1881; the Darjeeling toy train was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999.
  • The main reason for the protest is that private companies’ focus would be on profit, and local aspirations of the people would be ignored
  • Concerns have also been raised on how the government has taken this decision in an unilateral manner without consulting the stakeholders involved
  • Way forward:
  • Government should consult the stakeholders involved and create guidelines to meet their aspirations in a mutually beneficial manner.
  • What is a World Heritage Site:
  • A World Heritage site is classified as a natural or man-made area or a structure that is of international importance, and a space which requires special protection.
  • These sites are officially recognised by the UN and the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation, also known as UNESCO.
  • UNESCO believes that the sites classified as World Heritage are important for humanity, and they hold cultural and physical significance.
  • Key facts:
  • The list is maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 UNESCO member states which are elected by the General Assembly.
  • Each World Heritage Site remains part of the legal territory of the state wherein the site is located and UNESCO considers it in the interest of the international community to preserve each site.
  • To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance.
  • Prelims Hot-Link:
  • Darjeeling Hill railways
  • What is World Heritage Site?
  • UNESCO’s WHS in India
  • About UNESCO
  • Source – The Hindu
  1. LCA-Mk 2:

Prelims Specific Topic

  • Light Combat Aircraft-Tejas Mark 2, the second generation fighter prototypes are underway in association with the DRDO’s Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA).
  • The first flight is expected to be ready by 2023.
  • The Mk2 is 1,350 mm longer featuring canards and can carry a payload of 6,500 kg.

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